Business BA (Hons) (Combined Honours)
2016 - 2017
Bachelor of Arts (Combined Honours)
University of Chester
University of Chester
Chester Campus, Warrington Campus
Undergraduate Modular Programme
Full-time and Part-time
Classroom / Laboratory,
Annual - September
Business and Management
Business and Finance
Business and Management
Business, Strategy & Entrepreneurship
Friday 1st January 2010
To provide students with the opportunity to combine the study of business knowledge and skills with another specialist academic area.
To provide a flexible programme of study, which offers students a grounding in the disciplines, and methodologies of business and stimulates a critical awareness of contemporary issues facing managers in a variety of sectors and organisational contexts.
To enable all students to develop a management centred approach, within an academic context, that complements and underpins the understanding of other academic areas and disciplines.
To enable students to identify, develop, scrutinise and challenge a range of business models, frameworks and theories, and to apply them to a broad range of relevant work situations applicable to their chosen fields of study.
To enable students to develop and use a range of generic (transferable), cognitive, intellectual, personal and interpersonal skills which are relevant to their chosen academic fields and necessary for effective undergraduate study and future vocational progression.
To provide an appropriate base for access to further study or professional qualifications by encouraging the knowledge, skills and attitudes to become life-long learners who recognise the need to engage in Continuous Personal and Professional Development.
To provide a coherent programme of study which will prepare students for post-University employment and careers in a wide variety of organisational settings.
Students will address the following business concepts, enabling them to establish a solid foundation upon which further study opportunities can be enjoyed. In particular, they will focus upon:
The various processes, procedures, competencies and practices associated with effective management. (BU4001, , BU4002, BU4003, BU4004, TM4003,) The management and development of resources and operations. (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, TM4003) The diverse nature, purpose and governance of organisations. (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, BU4004,TM4003) Types of corporate behaviour and the internal and external factors that impact upon this behaviour. (BU4001, BU4004, TM4003) The development and operation of markets and the management of customer expectations. (BU4001, BU4003, BU4004, TM 4003) The sources, uses and management of finance. (BU4002) The development, management and exploitation of information systems and their use in effective decision making. ( BU4001, BU4002, BU4004, TM4001, TM4003) The use of relevant information technologies and their applications to business and management. (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, BU4004, TM4001, TM4003) The development of relevant, effective and appropriate management policies and strategies. (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, BU4004, TM4001, TM4003) The contemporary challenges and issues that face managers in the modern business environment and the organisations in which they operate. (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, BU4004, TM4001, TM4003)
At level 5, students will begin to explore strategic elements of managing business operations and, consequently, will:
Analyse organisational capabilities and assess the key individual, group and organisational influences on ethical decision making (BU5001, BU5003, BU5002, TM5001, TM50002). Demonstrate an understanding of the operational cycle in organisations within both manufacturing and service sectors.(BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, TM5003, WB5101) Analyse organisational capabilities and recognise the essential features required at each stage of designing, planning, implementation, monitoring and controlling operations.(BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, TM5001, WB5101) Reveal a command and relevant understanding of technical and creative skills for managers in communication; such as coaching, listening, negotiation, conflict, group dynamics, teamwork(BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, TM5003, WB5101) Recognise and critically discuss the concepts and principles of human resource management(BU5001, BU5003, BU5002, TM5002, WB5101) Analyse key management accounting themes, concepts and tools within an organisational context.(BU5001, BU5003, BU5004, WB5101) Apply appropriate analytical and decision making techniques to theoretical management accounting situations.(BU5001, BU5002,BU5004, WB5101) Analyse and evaluate the different and opposing views within the globalisation debate.(BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, TM5001) Examine the dynamics and effects of the internationalisation and integration of trade and markets and the continuing consequences for management action and reflection.(BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, BU5004, TM5001) Analyse the key drivers, opportunities and challenges of internationalisation for the direction and management of real businesses.(BU5001, BU5002, BU503, BU5004, TM5001, WB5101) Explore the role, value, participants, policy and provider perspectives involved in cultural factors (BU5002, BU5003, TM5002, WB5101) Synthesise contrasting theories of Direct marketing. (BU5002, TM5001, TM5002, TM5003,WB5101) Identify, apply and evaluate key tools available to the Direct Marketer(BU5002, TM5001, TM5002, TM5003, WB5101) Implement, evaluate and analyse relevant methods of digital and social media within a Direct Marketing for effective integration into organisations;(TM5001, BU5003, BU5302, TM5018) Analyse critically their development of work-specific and transferable skills and competencies and evaluate their work-based performance (WB5101, BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, BU5004, TM5001, TM5003)
Students will enhance their skill set sufficiently to enable them to critically assessand analyse business practices and theories. Students will be given the opportunity to:
Critically assess the various potential methodological and analytical approaches that could be employed in the design and structure of a chosen research project and appropriately articulate and justify the decisions made in this regard(BU6001, BU6004, BU6002, BU6017, BU6008,TM6004) Provide evidence of consequential reflection through reporting of relevant judgements that demonstrate an ability to articulate information, develop ideas and/or propose solutions through the application of autonomous learning.(BU6001, BU6002, BU6005, BU6006, BU6012, BU6017, TM6004) Implement, evaluate and critically appraise various strategic marketing management tools (BU6001, BU6002, BU6004, BU6006, BU6008, BU6017, TM6003, TM6004) Critically apply the concepts, paradigms and techniques of corporate strategy to an applied case and real industry and corporate scenario. (BU6001, BU6002,BU6006, BU6008, BU6017, TM6003, TM6004) Appraise and evaluate the role of strategy within organisations. (BU6001, BU6002, BU6006, BU6007, BU6008, BU6017, TM6003, TM6004) Formulate creative approaches to strategic problems. (BU6001, BU6002, BU6004,BU6006, BU6007, BU6008, BU6012, BU6017, TM6003, TM6004) Critically analyse and evaluate competitive advantage. (BU6001, BU6002, BU6004, BU6008, BU6012, BU6017, TM6003, TM6004) Assess, evaluate and synthesise the principal concepts in strategic financial management. (BU6002, BU6004, BU6006, BU6007, BU6012, BU6016, BU6017, TM6003) Prepare appropriate presentation of strategic financial arguments in a relevant context. (BU6002, BU6004, BU6006, BU6012, BU6016, BU6017, TM6003) Critically analyse and evaluate a range of leadership concepts, theories and models. (BU6001,BU6002, BU6004, BU6007, BU6008, BU6017) Critically analyse and evaluate a range of contemporary theories and models relating to managing change. (BU6001, BU6002, BU6004, BU6005, BU6008, BU6012, BU6016, BU6017, TM6003) Synthesise and evaluate the above concepts, theories and frameworks and evaluate how they can be best applied to leading and managing change effectively and responsibly. (BU6001, BU6002, BU6004, BU6005, BU6007, BU6008, BU6012, BU6016, BU6017, TM6003) Critique different strategic concepts, themes and frameworks associated with new business venture creation (BU6001, BU6002, BU6004, BU6005, BU6016, BU6017, TM6004)
Students undertaking this Programme will be able to demonstrate:
Cognitive skills of critical thinking, analysis and synthesis. This includes the capability to identify assumptions, evaluate statements in terms of evidence, to detect false logic or reasoning, to identify implicit values, to define terms adequately and to generalise appropriately. (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, BU5001, BU5002, WB5101, BU6001) Effective problem solving and decision making using appropriate quantitative and qualitative skills including identifying, formulating and solving business problems. (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, TM4001,TM4002, BU5001, BU5002, BU5003,BU5004, TM5002, TM5003, WB5101, BU6001, BU6002, BU6005, BU6006, BU6007, BU6008, BU6012, BU6017, TM6003, TM6004) The ability to create, evaluate and assess a range of options together with the capacity to apply ideas and knowledge to a range of situations. (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, BU4004, TM4001, TM4003, BU5001, BU5002, WB5101, BU6001, BU6002, BU6017, TM6003) Self reflection and criticality including self awareness, openness and sensitivity to diversity in terms of people, cultures, business and management issues. Also, the skills of learning to learn and developing a continuing appetite for learning; reflective, adaptive and collaborative learning. (BU4001, BU4003, TM4003, BU5002, BU5003, WB5101, TM5002, BU6001, BU6005, BU6017, BU6008, TM6003, TM6004)
The graduating student exiting with a Business Degree will be equipped to apply an extensive range of practical management skills to deal in a wide variety of contexts and across a broad range of sectors. In addition, graduates will be able to apply and utilise:
Effective communication, oral and in writing, using a range of media which are widely used in business such as the preparation and presentation of business reports (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, TM4001, TM4003, BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, BU5004, WB5101, BU6001, BU6002, BU6005, BU6006, BU6008, BU6012, TM6003, TM6004) Numeracy and quantitative skills including data analysis, interpretation and extrapolation. The use of models of business problems and phenomena (BU4001, BU4002, BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, BU5004, WB5101,TM5002, WB5101, BU6001, BU6006, BU6007, BU6012, BU6016, BU6017, TM6004) Effective use of communication and information technology for business applications (BU4001,BU4002, BU4003, BU4004, TM4001, TM4003, WB5101, BU5002, BU5003, BU5004, TM5001, TM5002, BU6001, BU6006, BU6007, BU6012, BU6016, BU6017, TM6003, TM6004) Effective self-management in terms of time, planning and behaviour, motivation, self-starting, individual initiative and enterprise (BU4001, BU4003, WB5101, BU5001, BU5002, BU6001,BU6017) Effective performance, within a team environment, including leadership, team building, influencing and project management skills (BU4001, TM4003, WB5101, BU5001, TM5001, BU6001, BU6002, BU6004, BU6008, BU6017) Interpersonal skills of effective listening, negotiating, persuasion and presentation (BU4001, BU4003, BU4004, TM4001, TM4002, BU5001, BU5002, WB5101, BU6001, BU6007, BU6008, BU6017, TM6003) The ability to conduct research into business and management issues, either individually or as part of a team for projects/dissertations/presentations. This requires familiarity with and an evaluative approach to a range of business data, sources of information and appropriate methodologies, and for such to inform the overall learning process (BU4001, BU4003, WB5101, BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, TM5003, BU6001, BU6012, BU6017)
Transferable Professional Skills
Capabilities for analysis, evaluation, innovation, and reflection; self- awareness and openness to life-long learning opportunities. (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, BU4004, TM4001, TM4003, WB5101, BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, BU5004, BU6001, BU6006, BU6007, BU6008, TM6004, BU6017)
Communication skills are embedded at every level with each module in the programme, specifically examining:
Communication - verbal and written communication skills developed through a range of activities and assessment methods (eg presentations and written reports) (BU4001, BU4002, BU4003, BU4004, TM4003, BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, BU5004, WB5101, TM5002, BU6001, TM6004) Application of Number - research methods and finance (BU4002, BU5004, WB5101, BU6001, BU6006, BU6012, BU6016, BU6017) Information Literacy and Technology - use of information technology and an appreciation of its application in management and business. (BU4001, BU4002, BU4004, BU5001, BU5004, TM5003, WB5101, BU6001, BU6012, BU6016, BU6017, TM6004) Improving own learning and performance - lifelong learning skills and continuous personal and professional development. (BU4001, BU4004, BU5002, BU5003, TM5002, WB5101, BU6001, TM6003) Working with others - group work tasks and activities (BU4001, BU4003, BU4004, WB5101, BU5001, BU5002, BU5003, BU6008 and BU6017) Problem Solving - experience developed of solving problems and decision making in a variety of contexts (BU4001 BU4002, BU4003, BU4004, TM4003, BU5001, BU5002, BU5004, TM5002, WB5101, BU6001, BU6002, BU6006, BU6012, BU6016, BU6017)
The programme is designed to prepare participants to become competent and knowledgeable in a range of business disciplines and competences. It aims to provide students with the knowledge, skills and understanding to successfully embark upon a career in business and management. Its content and structure have been informed by the QAA’s Benchmark Statement for General Business and Management. The subject curriculum of the programme is designed to cover and incorporate the following cognate areas:
markets - the development and operation of markets for resources, goods and services ( TM4001, BU4003: TM5001 or TM5002 or TM5003) customers - customer expectations, service and orientation (TM4003) finance - the sources, uses and management of finance; the use of accounting and other information systems for managerial applications (BU4003, BU5004) people - the management and development of people within organisations (BU4001, BU5003) operations - the management of resources and operations (TM4003, BU5001, BU5002)· information systems - the development, management and exploitation of information systems and their impact upon organisations (BU4004, BU5001, BU6009) communication and information technology - the comprehension and use of relevant communication and information technologies for application in business and management (BU4004, WB5001) business policy and strategy - the development of appropriate policies and strategies within a changing environment, to meet stakeholder interests (BU4003, BU6002) pervasive issues - sustainability, globalisation, corporate social responsibility, diversity, business innovation, creativity, enterprise development, knowledge management and risk management. (BU5002)
Progressive extension, integration and reinforcement in these cognate areas is further available in level 6 options. Students study the core functional areas of finance, marketing and people management progressively from level 4 through level 5. At level 6, students have the opportunity to continue with broad-based business studies or to specialise in one or more of these functional disciplines. The study of the functional areas is supported by modules exploring the context and environment in which businesses operate. A major emphasis is placed in both teaching and assessment in embedding and analysing conceptual knowledge in the experience and understanding of real industries and organisations.At Level 4 students develop an understanding of the key concepts and business functions, that business professionals have to be aware of, in order to operate successfully in the modern business environment. In addition students begin to develop some of the skills necessary to be an effective student and manager.
At Level 5, students expand their exploration of the relationship between functional areas and real industries and organisations. Students develop their appreciation of the contemporary context in which businesses operate. Key aspects of business behaviour and practice, such as how to manage people and how to make effective decisions, are developed in depth. Level 5 culminates in a period of experiential learning in which learners are provided with an opportunity to apply knowledge, skills and understanding within a real organisation. Students may undertake WB5007 International Exchange as a replacement year of level 5. The replacement International Exchange module (WB5007) provides an opportunity to replace their second year of study by studying at a different University in an overseas country. It is important that the content of the modules offered by the overseas University match those that would have been studied during the student's second year at the University of Chester.
Level 6 of the programme enables students to develop an understanding of how well the internal resources and business functions of organisations are managed to interact with their external environment. At the same time, students are enabled to build on prior learning to specialise in aspects of business theory and management practice that are of particular interest to them. Specialisation is achieved by providing a range of option modules and/or the opportunity to complete an individual research project which focuses on an appropriate business-related issue.
Barred and excluded module combinations.
Students may only take one of: BU6002 Strategic Management; TM6002 Strategic Marketing Management; TM6006 Strategic Management for Tourism & Events. Where two of these modules are core for combined programmes, the following general rules apply: 1. For major/minor combinations, the module core to the major programme should be taken, and an approved alternate chosen for the minor programme strategy module.
2. For joint combinations, students may choose which strategy module they wish to take, and then choose an approved alternate module to replace the barred module from the other programme.
Pre-requisite to BU6002 is BU4003 or BU5002 or acceptable equivalent
NB. BU6002 Strategic Management is Compulsory for Major, Minor and Equal weighted combinations when Business is combined with a subject outside Chester Business School.
Specific barred combinations and alternatives are listed below:
The typical applicant will have a minimum of 240 UCAS points, of which 200 points must be obtained from GCE A2 Level or Vocational A Level (6 or 12 unit) awards, including a Grade C in one subject. The remaining points may be achieved from GCE A2/AS Level, Vocational A/AS Level awards, or from Level 3 certification. BTEC National Certificate/Diploma applicants will have a minimum of a Merit profile. Applicants will be expected to hold a GCSE Mathematics qualification at grade C or above. Irish and Scottish Highers: a minimum of BBCC 30 points for applicants studying on the International or European Baccalaureate. Applications will be considered on an individual basis.Mature students (21 years of age or over) without evidence of the above qualifications are required to demonstrate that they ready to follow a higher education course at Level 1.
QAA Subject Benchmarks Statements for General Business and Management 2007
This subject benchmark statement is for general business and management honours degree programmes only. The purpose of general business and management programmes is threefold:
study of organisations, their management and the changing external environment in which they operate
preparation for and development of a career in business and management
enhancement of lifelong learning skills and personal development to contribute to society at large.
'Organisations' should be understood throughout this text to include a wide range of different types including, for example, public, private and not-for-profit, together with a comprehensive range of sizes and structures of organisations. Similarly, the term 'business' should be interpreted generically.
'Preparation for business' should be taken to mean the development of a range of specific business knowledge and skills, together with the improved self-awareness and personal development appropriate to graduate careers in business with the potential for management positions and to employability in general. This includes the encouragement of positive and critical attitudes towards change and enterprise, so as to reflect the dynamism and vibrancy of the business environment.
Not every student will engage subsequently in a business and management career, or will have entered directly from secondary education. Therefore, lifelong learning skills should be understood to include the development and enhancement of a range of general transferable intellectual and study skills, which, while being highly appropriate to a career in business and management, are not restricted to this.
While there is a clear expectation that all such general degree programmes should cover these three purposes, the actual balance will vary among individual higher education institutions and may also reflect the requirements for recognition by professional bodies. The particular balance being delivered should be explicable and demonstrable in terms of the specified learning outcomes of particular programmes.
Knowledge and understanding
There is an expectation that degree programmes covered by this subject benchmark statement should provide a broad, analytical and highly integrated study of business and management. Students should be able to demonstrate relevant knowledge and understanding of organisations, the external environment in which they operate and how they are managed. There is likely to be an emphasis upon understanding and responding to change and the consideration of the future of organisations and the external environment in which they operate. The interrelationships among and the interconnectedness between these areas are very important within the overall student learning experience, and should be demonstrated in the capabilities of successful graduates from all modes of delivery.
Organisations - this encompasses the internal aspects, functions and processes of organisations including their diverse nature, purposes, structures, governance, operations and management, together with the individual and corporate behaviours and cultures which exist within and between organisations and their influence upon the external environment.
External environment - this encompasses a wide range of factors, including economic, environmental, ethical, legal, political, sociological and technological, together with their effects at local, national and international levels upon the strategy, behaviour, management and sustainability of organisations.
Management - this encompasses the various processes, procedures and practices for effective management of organisations. It includes theories, models, frameworks, tasks and roles of management together with rational analysis and other processes of decision making within organisations and in relation to the external environment.Within the framework of these three main areas, it is expected that graduates will also be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding in the following areas:
markets - the development and operation of markets for resources, goods and services
customers - customer expectations, service and orientation
finance - the sources, uses and management of finance; the use of accounting and other information systems for managerial applications
people - the management and development of people within organisations
operations - the management of resources and operations
information systems - the development, management and exploitation of information systems and their impact upon organisations
communication and information technology - the comprehension and use of relevant communication and information technologies for application in business and management
business policy and strategy - the development of appropriate policies and strategies within a changing environment, to meet stakeholder interests
pervasive issues - sustainability, globalisation, corporate social responsibility, diversity, business innovation, creativity, enterprise development, knowledge management and risk management.
Business and management degrees are strongly related to practice and therefore there should be a strong link between the development of skills and employability of graduates. Students should be able to demonstrate a range of cognitive and intellectual skills together with techniques specific to business and management. Students should also be able to demonstrate relevant personal and interpersonal skills. These include (not in any particular priority order):
cognitive skills of critical thinking, analysis and synthesis. This includes the capability to identify assumptions, evaluate statements in terms of evidence, to detect false logic or reasoning, to identify implicit values, to define terms adequately and to generalise appropriately
effective problem solving and decision making using appropriate quantitative and qualitative skills including identifying, formulating and solving business problems. The ability to create, evaluate and assess a range of options together with the capacity to apply ideas and knowledge to a range of situations
effective communication, oral and in writing, using a range of media which are widely used in business such as the preparation and presentation of business reports
numeracy and quantitative skills including data analysis, interpretation and extrapolation. The use of models of business problems and phenomena
effective use of communication and information technology for business applications
effective self-management in terms of time, planning and behaviour, motivation, self-starting, individual initiative and enterprise
effective performance, within a team environment, including leadership, team building, influencing and project management skills
interpersonal skills of effective listening, negotiating, persuasion and presentation
ability to conduct research into business and management issues, either individually or as part of a team for projects/dissertations/presentations. This requires familiarity with and an evaluative approach to a range of business data, sources of information and appropriate methodologies, and for such to inform the overall learning process
self reflection and criticality including self awareness, openness and sensitivity to diversity in terms of people, cultures, business and management issues. Also, the skills of learning to learn and developing a continuing appetite for learning; reflective, adaptive and collaborative learning.
It is recognised that all programmes covered by these standards need to address issues at the European and international business levels. Where specific emphasis is placed upon this, for example, in the title or in requiring study and or work abroad, then appropriate business and cultural understanding and, where appropriate, foreign language capability should be developed and demonstrated by students.
The methods of learning and teaching are geared to progression and integration through the levels of the programme. The individual module descriptors provide details of learning outcomes as well as methods of teaching and learning. The major forms of teaching methods will be lectures, seminars and workshops. Other methodologies will be employed as appropriate. These may include; field trips, visits, directed reading, interactive learning via the University computer network, case study analysis, individual research, group learning activities, reflective log/portfolio (e.g. utilising student progress files in relation to personal development planning) and presentations. Industry practitioners will also be used wherever possible, as repositories of up to date, expert knowledge in their specialist or functional areas.
The Department seeks to deliver varied, high-quality learning experiences, teaching and assessment in order to develop appropriate knowledge and understanding, and to enhance a variety of key/transferable skills. This is facilitated through the outcome-directed nature of learning, teaching and assessment, in a student-centred environment, which provides incremental opportunities for independent and autonomous learning.
The assessment strategy for this degree will serve three purposes:
To test the level of knowledge and skills acquired, measured against the specified learning outcomes, and applied within a relevant business context;
To provide the vehicle for modular integration within a business context;
To promote teaching to learning, which will assist students in the achievement of academic goals and imbue them with skills and attitudes which will assist in life-long learning.
Assessment will follow the university model of a 4,000 word equivalency per module. Each module will be summatively assessed by a minimum of two assessments, with formative assessment also employed throughout. Student assessment will employ rigorous, objective testing to ensure that learning outcomes are met.
Assessment tasks will grow in sophistication and complexity as a student progresses on the programme. For example:
at Level Four a student may be asked to describe, discuss, compare, and outline;
at Level Five a student may be asked to evaluate, analyse, justify, and differentiate;
at Level Six a student may be asked to criticise, synthesise, appraise, formulate.
However, it is expected that students will begin to use and develop critical skills from the beginning of the programme.
Students will be assessed in a number of ways, including essays, industry-related reports, presentations, poster displays and presentations, assessed seminars, reflective reports, examinations.
The departmental assessment strategy has been created in accordance to the University's Teaching, Learning & Assessment strategy.
Students completing the BA Business Combined Honours programme should meet the QAA’s Benchmark document’s standards on knowledge, understanding and skills. The outcome of level six should be a graduate student who will be able to offer added value to the market place by meeting the expectations of employers via the application of acquired transferable, integrated skills, and the developed body of knowledge gained from the programme. In addition the graduate will have amassed valuable life skills such as self-awareness, creative problem solving, and autonomy, which could be applied in a wide variety of circumstances which they will face. They will have been instilled with a positive attitude towards reflection, self- awareness and will possess openness towards seeking out life-long learning opportunities, which may be translated into the pursuit of professional qualifications.
Consistent with the University’s commitment to widen access and participation, the Department has a flexible admissions policy, and encourages applications from mature students and from groups normally under-represented in higher education. The general policy is to look for a good level of literacy, together with proven interest and/or experience in an appropriate subject.
The Department has considerable experience in successfully addressing the practical and learning needs of a wide range of students. This include mature students, those entering education with a non-standard academic background and those with a wide range of disabilities. Equality and diversity issues are embedded and addressed in all departmental modules.
Students studying on the programme will benefit from the experience of staff within the department.For example, some lecturers have extensive experience in delivering management training for organisations. Other lecturers have previous management experience, or operate their own business organisations, all of which helps to inform the curriculum. . The Department has links with Liverpool City Council, Wirral Council, Chester Business Club, Chester & Warrington Chambers of Commerce, the Mersey-Dee Alliance, the Leadership Trust Forum, North West Development Agency and the Birchwood Business Forum. The Department is also a member of the Association of Business Schools and the European Foundation for Management Development.
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