University of Chester

Programme Specification
Doctor of Ministry DMin
2017 - 2018

Doctor of Ministry

Doctor of Ministry

Doctor of Ministry (IBC)

University of Chester

Irish Baptist College, Moira, Northern Ireland

Administered from Irish Baptist College (and with residentials)

Professional Doctorate


Work-Based inc.(practice / placement)

6 years part-time

7 Years

Annual - September



17a. Faculty

17b. Department

Arts and Humanities Theology & Religious Studies

Framework for Higher Education Qualifications and FHEQ (England, Wales & Northern Ireland)

Framework for Qualifications for the European Higher Education third cycle awards

Doctorate of Ministry Programme Assessment Board/Research Degrees Progression Awards Board

Thursday 25th February 2016

Why is the programme offered?

 We aim to:

  • develop reflective practitioners who will engage in critical, theological reflection upon the practice of Christian ministry
  • recognize the value of applying scholarship and research to the development of ministry in a range of contexts
  • develop good practice in ministry through producing graduates who can engage in high level, independent reflection and leadership in their chosen field

What are the key outcomes of the programme?

 We aim to:

  • facilitate personal growth in ministry through in-depth, independent reflection
  • develop new, innovative and ethically defensible theological and disciplinary perspectives on ministry
  • develop the ability to independently research key aspects of ministry to produce new knowledge
  • develop a range of research methods which will enhance investigation into ministry issues
  • apply new knowledge to a range of ministry contexts

Level 7

The student will be able to:

  • demonstrate the ability to analyse critically and evaluate their findings and those of others (all modules)
  • show the ability to undertake, in a self-directed manner, work-based projects that deal with complex issues concerning professional practice and/or organisational objectives (all modules)
  • demonstrate systematic conceptual understanding that enables them to evaluate critically current research and advanced scholarship in practical theology (all modules)
  • use a variety of sources of knowledge/evidence and exercise critical judgement in its application (all modules)
  • demonstrate knowledge of research methods applicable to their professional context (all modules)
  • demonstrate a willingness and ability to learn and acquire knowledge (TH7501)

Level 8

The student will be able to:

  • demonstrate original, independent and critical thinking, and the ability to develop theoretical concepts (TH8506 and TH8510)
  • systematically demonstrate an in-depth understanding of a substantial body of knowledge and understanding which is at the forefront of the academic discipline of practical theology and/or area of professional practice (all modules)
  • identify, through access to the literature of original research and/or advanced scholarship, new knowledge and to communicate this to others so that it satisfies peer review and merits publication (all modules)
  • demonstrate an understanding of relevant research methodologies and techniques and their appropriate application within one's research field (TH8506, TH8505 and TH8510)
  • show a broad understanding of the context, at the national and international level, in which research takes place (TH8506)
  • understand the processes for funding and evaluation of research (attendance at block teaching)
  • understand the process of academic or commercial exploitation of research results (attendance at block teaching)

Level 7

The student will be able to:

  • demonstrate a comprehensive facility with skills of text-based research, enquiry-based learning and theological reflection to review, consolidate and extend their knowledge and understanding (TH7501 and TH7503)
  • analyse and synthesise information in such a way that it can be of use to them and others within the context of their professional practice (TH7501)
  • critically evaluate concepts, theories, research findings and other sources of knowledge and make informed judgements about their application in the context of professional practice (all modules)
  • demonstrate ability to think critically, to undertake critical self-reflection and to act critically within the context of their professional practice in such a way that it has advanced their self-understanding as a professional and as a person (all modules)

Level 8

The student will be able to:

  • design, implement and disseminate original research or other advanced scholarship which is of a quality to satisfy peer review, extend the forefront of the discipline, and merit publication (TH8506 and TH8510)
  • demonstrate awareness of issues relating to the rights of other researchers, of research subjects, and of others who may be affected by the research, e.g. confidentiality, ethical issues, attribution, copyright, malpractice, ownership of data and the requirements of the Data Protection Act (TH8506)
  • integrate theoretical and professional-practical perspectives, knowledge and understanding in such a way as to generate critique, and reformulation of theory and of professional practice (TH8506, TH8505 and TH8510)
  • justify the principles and experimental techniques used in their own research (TH8506 and TH8510)

Practical Skills

Level 7

The student will be able to:

  • develop appreciation and application of standards of good research practice in their institution and/or discipline (all modules)
  • design and execute systems for the acquisition and collation of information through the effective use of appropriate resources and equipment (all modules)
  • systematically analyse complex issues and apply their knowledge and understanding to work place contexts (all modules)
  • understand relevant health and safety issues and demonstrate responsible working practices (attendance at block teaching)
  • design and execute systems for the acquisition and collation of information through the effective use of appropriate resources and equipment (TH7501)
  • effectively support the learning of others when involved in teaching, mentoring or demonstrating activities (attendance at block teaching)

Level 8

The student will be able to:

  • apply effective project management through the setting of research goals, intermediate milestones and prioritisation of activities (TH8506 and TH8510)
  • identify and access appropriate bibliographical resources, archives, and other sources of relevant information. Use information technology appropriately for database management, recording and presenting information (TH8506 and TH8510)
  • exercise independence of thought and action in unpredictable situations in complex professional contexts through acceptance of a high level of personal responsibility and use of autonomous initiative (all modules)
  • demonstrate a leadership role in their field underpinned by a confident mastery of a body of knowledge relating to their profession (TH8506 and TH8510)
  • understand their behaviour and impact on others when working in and contributing to the success of formal and informal teams (TH8506, TH8505 and TH8510)
  • develop the ability to recognise and validate problems and to formulate and test hypotheses (TH8506)
  • design and execute systems for the acquisition and collation of information through the effective use of appropriate resources and equipment (TH8506 and TH8510)
  • contribute to promoting the public understanding of their research field (TH8506 and TH8510)

Transferable Professional Skills

Successful candidates will be expected to:

  • appreciate the need for and show commitment to continued professional development
  • take ownership for and manage their career progression, set realistic and achievable career goals, and identify and develop ways to improve employability
  • present their skills, personal attributes and experiences through effective CVs, applications and interviews
  • construct coherent arguments and articulate ideas clearly to a range of audiences, formally and informally through a variety of techniques (TH8506 and TH8510)

Level 7

The student will be able to:

  • demonstrate flexibility and open-mindedness (all modules)
  • show initiative, work independently and be self-reliant (all modules)
  • write clearly and in a style appropriate to purpose, e.g. progress reports, published documents, thesis (all modules)
  • use information technology and computer skills (ITC) for data capture, to identify and retrieve material and support research and presentations (all modules)
  • effectively support the learning of others when involved in teaching, mentoring or demonstrating activities (TH7501)
  • demonstrate ability to analyse critically and evaluate their findings and those of others (TH7501)
  • develop and maintain co-operative networks and working relationships with supervisors, colleagues and peers, within the institution and the wider research community (attendance at block teaching)
  • listen, give and receive feedback and respond perceptively to others (attendance at block teaching)

Level 8

The student will be able to:

  • be creative, innovative and original in their approach to research (TH8506, TH8505 and TH8510)
  • constructively defend research outcomes at seminars and viva examination (TH8506, TH8505 and TH8510)
  • demonstrate high levels of communication through highly articulate written and oral skills, especially in the context of assessment tasks and the dissemination of research findings (TH8510)
  • demonstrate advanced numerical skills (in the case of those who undertake a quantitative dissertation) through an understanding of statistics and statistical analysis and its use in practical contexts (TH8510)
  • work collaboratively with others in problem-solving, clarifying of key concepts, designing and implementing shared research projects and communicating their findings clearly and effectively (TH8506, TH8505 and TH8510)
  • do problem solving: the focus of the programme is essentially around this area thus skill development in this context is assured (all modules)
  • demonstrate appreciation of standards of good research practice in their institution and/or discipline (TH8510 and attendance at block teaching and seminars)
  • demonstrate self-awareness, self-discipline, motivation, thoroughness and the ability to identify own training needs and appropriate boundaries (TH8510)

The programme can be represented as having three stages:

Stage 1A.   Level 7 - Theological Preparation and Reflection (120 credits)

Stage 1B.   Level 8 - Researching the practice of ministry (120 credits)

Stage 2.     Level 8 - Thesis (300 credits)

A part-time student with a relevant master's degree and appropriate professional experience, who makes a successful APL claim for Stage 1A (Preparation and reflection), would be eligible for exemption from Level 7 modules. Such students would then be expected to complete Stage 1B in 18 months and to complete the DMin Dissertation within the following three years.

Part-time students commencing the course without exemptions at Level 7 will normally require six years to complete the Doctorate of Ministry programme.

Each stage is completed before the next is begun: theological preparation and reflection (or a credit claim) is a prerequisite for the first designated modules of Stage 1B; the level 8 designated modules are prerequisites for the thesis and trigger the Advisory Review Board.

Pathways through these may typically be part-time six years. A common model of recruitment is a part-time student with relevant master's degree and updated professional experience which enables a successful APL claim for the research preparation: this is shown as a five year pathway. Without such accredited learning, a part-time student can achieve the doctorate in six years with modules (total 120 credits at level 7) of theological preparation and reflection.

Stage 1A. Theological Preparation and Reflection 

Where students do not have a relevant master's degree or postgraduate diploma and updated professional experience for an APL claim (of up to 120 credits at level 7) they undertake one compulsory 20 credit module plus a further five optional 20 credit modules. All of the modules taken during Stage 1A require students to engage in critical theological reflection. These modules offer students resources for enhancing their reflection on practice through a critical engagement with a range of theological subjects relevant to preparation for reflection on Christian ministry.

Stage 1A - Level 7 

TH7501 - Study Skills (Compulsory - 20 credits)

Study Skills is a compulsory module for all students in this programme, unless exemption has been awarded by the University of Chester, through a credit claim presented at the time of application. The student is required to reach a requisite standard.

TH7515 Women in Ministry (20 credits)

This module seeks to make students aware of various approaches to gender related theological issues, identify and investigate primary biblical texts relating to Christian women, examine the role of women in the Church and society - Western, global and Northern Irish - and prepare students to engage in research in specific and relevant areas of interest.

TH7516 Leadership in the Pastoral Epistles (20 credits)

This module provides a theological and historical examination of the major issues relating to Christian leadership within the Pastoral Epistles, and explores their relevance to the contemporary context.

TH7517 The Theology of Worship (20 credits)

This module is an examination of worship biblically and historically together with reflection on worship in pastoral practice.

TH7518 Biblical Ethics in Contemporary Context (20 credits)

This module provides the student with a biblical framework for engaging in ethical discussion before going on to examine in a critical way a range of contemporary ethical issues.

TH7519 Reformation Studies (20 credits)

This module provides the student with the opportunity to engage more fully with the theology of the Reformation period and to examine its implications for ministry today.

TH7520 Apologetics (20 credits)

This module provides the student with opportunity to examine approaches to Christian apologetics and to relate this to contemporary issues.

TH7521 Christology Yesterday and Today (20 credits)

This module is an examination of the Christology of selected key theologians and historical/contemporary debates.

TH7522 Preaching in the Contemporary World (20 credits)

An examination and study of the practice of preaching as a relevant vehicle of communicating Christian truth in contemporary society.

TH7523 Mission Studies (20 credits)

This module includes an examination of the historical, biblical and theological backgrounds to missions and their implications for contemporary practice.

Stage 1B - designated level 8 components of reflection and research training/researching the practice of ministry

Stage 1B: Level 8 (total 120 credits)

Students with a relevant master's degree or postgraduate diploma and updated professional experience for an APL claim may be allowed to begin at this point. Students undertake 120 credits from Part 1B.

TH8506 - Critical Review and Thesis Proposal (40 credits)

This module presents a critical understanding of research paradigms appropriate to theological research with their constituent research methodologies and methods through a critical analysis of examplar papers drawn from contemporary academic peer reviewed material. A Research Project and a full Research Proposal for the DMin thesis should be end products.

The principal aim of this module is for the student to make a case for their readiness to engage in doctoral level study. It reviews the preparation (or the credit claim for prior learning) and acts as the gatekeeper to level 8 studies. It provides the framework for the student to put forward their case for the areas of major research and to have it tested before being allowed to proceed. 

This identifies a clear context, focus and question for the proposed research project, giving a well-supported rationale for the project's value, usefulness and originality. It demonstrates a clear ability to ground this research project in the wider context of issues, debates and methods within the discipline of practical theology. It presents a clear methodology for undertaking this project which is appropriate to the project's research question and which demonstrates a sophisticated understanding of particular research paradigms and the nature and limitations of specific research methods.

TH8502 - Principles and Practice of Pastoral Care (20 credits)

This module requires the student to be able to develop a critical examination of the nature of pastoral care in the 21st century and the challenge facing Christian ministers in particular crisis situations.

TH8503 - Principles and Practice of Christian Mission (20 credits)

This module asks ‘what is mission'? A critical examination of how successive paradigm shifts have affected the understanding of mission is the goal of this course. In-depth reflections on how these reflect upon the biblical/theological basis of mission should result in the written assessment.

TH8504 - The Church - Principles and Practice of Ministry (20 credits)

Aspects of biblical and historical ecclesiology will be examined. The module will combine these two bodies of knowledge and provide opportunity for in-depth reflection on the practical needs of contemporary ministry.

TH8505 - Theological Reflection and Ministry (40 credits)

The module presents an in-depth approach to critical theological reflection including the use of Scripture, tradition, the social sciences and culture as they relate to the practice of theology. The practitioner will be assessed as to personal strengths and weaknesses in the process of critical reflection and will engage with examples drawn from contemporary society.

Stage 2 (the Thesis)

TH8510 DMin Thesis (300 credits)

After an Advisory and Review Board confirming the supervision arrangements, students undertake the final component. On successful completion of stages 1A and 1B a student proceeds to the final submission of a 50,000 word thesis. This will be a substantial piece of theological research, done under the guidance of a supervisor, on a topic arising from their experience and practice of ministry. Appropriate theological and other sources and methods should be used to explore the research topic. A significant contribution to the understanding and practice of ministry in the area under investigation should be made by the thesis. The thesis will be assessed in an oral examination by an internal and an external examiner.  

Mod-Code Level Title Credit Single
TH7501 7 Study Skills 20 Comp
TH7505 7 Preaching 20 N/A
TH7515 7 Women in Ministry 20 Optional
TH7516 7 Leadership in the Pastoral Epistles 20 Optional
TH7517 7 The Theology of Worship 20 Optional
TH7518 7 Biblical Ethics in Contemporary Context 20 Optional
TH7519 7 Reformation Studies 20 Optional
TH7520 7 Apologetics 20 Optional
TH7521 7 Christology Yesterday and Today 20 Optional
TH7522 7 Preaching in the Contemporary World 20 Optional
TH7523 7 Mission Studies 20 Optional
TH8502 8 Principles and Practice of Pastoral Care 20 Optional
TH8503 8 Principles and Practice of Christian Mission 20 Optional
TH8504 8 The Church - Principles and Practice of Ministry 20 Optional
TH8505 8 Theological Reflection and Ministry 40 Comp
TH8506 8 Critical Review and Thesis Proposal 40 Comp
TH8510 8 DMin Thesis 300 Comp

The overall DMin award is made up of 540 credits.
120 credits are at level 7 achieved through modules of theological preparation and reflection, or alternatively a claim based on credit for a relevant master's degree or postgraduate diploma and updated professional experience.
120 credits are designated modular components and options at level 8.
300 credits are for a thesis (TH8510) defended at an oral assessment (viva voce) (level 8).

The interim award of M.Prof.Studies

The Master in Professional Studies is not a target award but is available for students achieving at least 180 credits at levels 7 and 8 on the programme but not continuing for the DMin award. Alternatively (entry with APCL) and six Stage 1A  modules at level 7 give a profile of 180 credits on completion of 60 credits from the level 8 modules. 

Applicants will need to provide evidence of a sustainable professional or organisational context for advanced independent research in practical theology.

Typically, students will hold a Masters degree. All applicants should normally have at least an upper second class Honours degree in a discipline appropriate to their intended area of research, or a lower second class Honours degree plus a Masters degree. Substantial prior research experience may, in some instances, be acceptable in place of an appropriate degree qualification.   

Applicants shall also satisfy the requirements for English Language, where English is not their first language (IELTS 6.5 or TOEFL 570 (230 computer-based) is the minimum requirement). 

Qualifications and preparedness for postgraduate research will be judged from the application form and interview. 

Students with additional needs should declare this at the time of application, and an assessment made by Student Support and Guidance of the University's ability to support these needs. 

Where a candidate might be disadvantaged by not meeting the normal qualification entry criteria, the following (for example) can apply:

  • Where the first degree is lower than a 2:1 honours degree and more than 10 years old the following may be taken in its place: other more recent qualifications (or a substantial amount of study) at levels 6 or 7 (e.g. PGCE, Masters) or   experience of at least 3 years work at a professional level within the last 5 years.
  • Substantial prior research or professional experience is understood to mean at least 2 years operating at a senior level (e.g. as an independent or principal researcher/practitioner). 
  • Students presenting international qualifications which are not judged to be the equivalent of an Honours degree, would normally be required to undertake and attain a good pass on at least one 7 level module as a condition of entry.

There are no subject benchmark statements that can be referred to with respect to DMin.  However, at Stage 1A. where modules are taken at Level 7  the Theology and Religious Studies Benchmark Statement, published by the QAA in 2000 and revised in 2007 and the new Benchmark Statement of 2014, are used as a foundation for the design of the programme’s content and outcomes. In accordance with the Benchmark Statement these include an range of research and study tools’ (A4.3) where students learn the research skills needed to engage in advanced independent research, and developed then in a range of optional modules; an appropriate knowledge of research methods and ethical research (A4.2, A6.1); independence and originality of research; and self-directed learning demonstratingan advanced ability to source material, think independently, and critically engage with and reflect upon a key area within the study of theology.(TRS Benchmark 3.2) 

A summary of the requirements for the award of a Doctorate of Ministry degree reflect accurately the FHEQ statement regarding doctoral level awards in general.  Thus, for the DMin candidates will have shown their ability to engage in self-directed, independent research and reflection on the practice of ministry, and to produce independent work at level 8 which makes a significant contribution to the understanding and practice of ministry in the area under investigation.


The Doctorate of Ministry degree is a professional doctorate which provides an opportunity to engage in sustained reflection and research upon the practice of ministry. The programme provides structured elements of research training. All the components are pursued as supervised independent study.

At the heart of professional doctorates is a dyn­amic relationship between theory and practice. All doctoral research represents a contribution to knowledge and under­standing within a particular academic discipline, but the pro­fessional doc­torate also genera­tes evidence-based or practice-based research capable of informing and enhancing the self-understanding of a particular professional or institutional context.  The DMin programme uses techniques of what is known as enquiry-based learning. Throughout this doctoral study, students participate in exercises such as case studies and qualitative research and field­work which will enable them to sharp­en important transferable skills such as identifying research questions, problem-solving, research design and im­ple­­men­ta­tion, and communicating research findings to others.

A stimulating research environment is crucial to support students working at doctoral level. The primary component of this environment for students enrolled on the professional doctorate will be the residentials and the relationships developed during them within particular cohorts of students. The residentials will both provide the opportunity for engaging with a range of scholars and professional practitioners, and will enable the students to develop as researchers.

The level 7 components may be accounted for by APCL in a student's profile, for example by the research training undertaken within a master's degree. Alternatively, these can be pursued in the programme in preparation for the doctoral research components as supervised independent study. 

The level 8 designated modular components of research and research training are delivered and supported in residentials.

Sessions in the residentials include work on research skills and methodology, practical exercises in enquiry-based learning and lectures, seminars and student-led discussions. Several recurrent themes appropriate to the students' development and assessment relevant to the student are addressed: 

  • Research Methods at doctoral level - how to design and implement strategies for gathering evidence, particularly qualitative data such as participant-observation, case studies, interviews, etc. This will be of relevance for the research proposal (TH8510), which focuses on the question of methodology and research design. Consideration will also be paid to questions of research ethics: the protocols for research with human subjects, as well as issues of confidentiality, accountability, dissemination, etc.
  • Enquiry-Based Learning at doctoral level - this approach to learning emphasises the importance of learning through doing, through the use of real-life or simulated examples. Through exercises, workshops on analysing and understanding our own research contexts, using case studies and fieldwork, students will develop skills of reflexivity and self-evaluation as well as working on issues of how to use their own practice and experience and that of others as a primary source for advanced research.

Following the modules (level 8) students are assigned a Supervisory team normally consisting of three people, and the team is revised or confirmed at an Advisory and Review Board before the thesis is begun.  

  • The main supervisor, responsible for agreeing a suitable programme of research work and overseeing its progress, and for administrative issues relating to the student's registration and progress. The main supervisor will undertake the majority of supervision.  
  • One or more academic colleagues who act as co-supervisor(s). The co-supervisor will normally be appointed to contribute their specific expertise in assisting the main supervisor throughout the development of the student's research programme and may act as a supervisor of sections of work in progress in consultation with the main supervisor.  
  • A third member of staff (normally the programme leader or one of the associate programme leaders) will act as advisor/personal academic tutor to provide pastoral support to the student and to monitor their progress, providing advice accordingly.

For the 20-credit modules assessment is by coursework totalling 4,000 words or equivalent per 20 credit module, while for the 40-credit modules assessment is by coursework totalling 8,000 words per 40 credit module. In many cases the coursework comprises one long essay or equivalent, but where appropriate to the learning outcomes of the module, it may comprise a combination of shorter pieces, such as a regular journal plus a reflective essay.

    1. All written work is double marked internally, and then by the appointed External Examiner.
    2. The Stage 1 modules are more integrative, than those in the Theological Preparation stage, in terms of relating theory and theology to the practice of ministry. Each module in Stage 1 is assessed through a 4,000-5,000 word research project, as opposed to a 4,000-5,000 word essay for the theological preparation stage to enable the student to be familiarised with different aspects of research methods. The objective of this emphasis for Stage 1 is that the student is well prepared for the level of research required for the doctoral thesis. 
    3. Stage 2 is assessed by a thesis of 50,000 words (excluding footnotes and bibliography) which is examined normally by one internal and the appointed external examiner.
    4. No student may progress (via upgrade) to Stage 2 (thesis) without having successfully met the requirements for Stage 1.
    5. The pass mark in all modules is 40%.
    6. When a candidate cannot, through disability, be fairly assessed by the methods prescribed for the course concerned, the University of Chester Module Assessment Board in collaboration with IBC may vary those as they deem appropriate, bearing in mind the aims and learning outcomes of the programme of study and course and the need to assess each candidate on equal terms with other candidates.
    7. In determining the nature of any variation in the methods of assessments, full account must be taken of the University's policies in respect of students with disabilities which are set out in the University's Code of Practice.
    8. The Research proposal (level 8) presents and critiques the methodology which underpins the thesis, and assessment of the 50,000 word thesis includes an oral assessment (viva voce examination). Formative feedback will be offered to students on draft submissions.
    9. The thesis will reside within the University Regulation for Research Degrees. All other modules within the programme will reside within University regulations for modular provision.

 The holder of a Doctorate of Ministry will be an advanced professional who has:

  • extensive knowledge and reflective understanding which is at the forefront of the academic discipline of practical theology and/or area of professional practice
  • the ability to conduct original research or other advanced scholarship which is of a quality to satisfy peer review, extend the forefront of the discipline, and merit publication
  • the ability to integrate theoretical and professional-practical perspectives, knowledge and understanding in such a way as to generate mutual critique, and reformulation of theory and of professional practice
  • the general ability to conceptualise, design and implement a project for the generation of new knowledge, applications or understanding which are at the forefront of the discipline or area of theological, institutional or professional practice, and to adjust the project design in the light of peer review, evaluation or new information
  • a detailed understanding of applicable techniques for original research, effective communication, critical and independent reasoning appropriate to advanced academic enquiry
  • a commitment to continued professional development and an ability to set realistic career goals 
  • demonstrate an insight into the transferable nature of research skills to other work environments and the range of career opportunities within and outside academia

A student's Doctorate of Ministry programme will have a high degree of individuality built into it with the student taking a significant share of the responsibility for its planning, content and mode of delivery.  Students taking this programme should be aware that they need to be highly self-motivated and self-directed to maintain the necessary momentum to complete the programme successfully.  University support will be provided but the distance learning nature of the programme requires determination from the student and pro-activity in maintaining contact with tutors.  Successful completion of the programme would normally require the student to be in full-time employment at a sufficient level of seniority to influence strategic and/or operational decisions.

The programme is part of a widening participation agenda in its appeal to practitioners from a range of professions and with various religious affiliations (including those with no personal faith-commitment) to whom a standard academic PhD would not appeal.

The delivery allows the student to remain in full-employment and to use the work context in the research undertaken.

The residentials offer peer and tutor support to students who would not immediately thrive with only individual supervision and independent study.

A professional doctorate, offered on a part-time basis, will enable the production of research of publishable quality as well as offering candidates a context for the development of practice-based research.

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